The Contribution Of Renewable Energy Companies In Indonesia
Indonesia consists of thousands of islands with almost 200 million people. Some factors such as the development of economic and population in Indonesia has resulted in an increase of electricity consumption. The electricity in Indonesia is managed by a government company called by PLN (Perusahaan Listrik Negara). Every year PLN formulates a long term plan of electricity supply in Indonesia which is written in an annual report of power planning (RUPTL). PLN (2009:p.36) reports that the rate of economic growth has achieved 6.32 % in 2007 and the rate of population growth of 1.17% in every year.
Moreover according to PLN (2009,p.39), the projection of consumen growth is average 2,7 million every year and PLN estimates energy sales and peak load for next ten years.
Responding these, PLN should develop new power plants to fulfill energy demands. The composition of power generations based on the type of fuels in 2007 can be seen in reference (PLN 2009:79). Recently coal has become the favourite type of fuels in power generation because Indonesia has a large amount of coal reserves. Also it’s generation cost is cheap and can be used to produce electricity in big capacity. Whereas oil power plants still dominate in an isolated power system.
However, in order to develop the electricity in islands that are isolated, the government has started to utilize renewable resources as energy sources of the power plant. Currently, the isolated systems were generally supplied by diesel power plants. Therefore the implementation of renewable energy would be fuel saving purposes or develop a new power system. Relating to geographic conditions, some types of renewable resources have great potential energy such as solar, hydro, wind, wave and geothermal.
Renewable Energy Indonesia Assessment
Twidell (1986, p.3) defined renewable energy as energy which is produced naturally by environtment and has infinite reserves because they can be continually formed in short time. Because it is potential energy, another government institution which employs in energy conservation and electricity, DIRJEN LPE, has created an energy map of renewable resources to utilize the development of renewable energy in Indonesia. This institution measures the parameters of renewable resources at some potential locations in Indonesia which might be useful and important for the renewable energy assessment.
Varun et al. (2009) states that there are three indicators to assess renewable energy technologies such as pay-back time, greenhouse gas emission and generation cost. As the result, hydro and wind turbine were the most favourable in first priority which were followed by photovoltaic and solar thermal. Tidal and wave might not included because people seldom develop them. Nusa Penida in Bali was chosen as a prototype of the development of renewable power generation.
The assessment of wind turbine need some carefully consideration because the wind can stop and blow anytime. Because of that, it is important to examine the candidate regions by looking at some measured parameters. And the measurement might need a long time to validate the data. DIRJEN LPE has compiled the implementation data of wind energy.
Generally, Indonesia has low wind speed and Suripno, a research of LAPAN (National Research of Space), comments in National Newspaper Kompas (2009) that Indonesia has only 6 locations which have wind speed more than 6 m/s. Whereas Nusa Penida has wind speed in range of 3-12 m/s.
In addition to utilizing renewable energy, Indonesia locates in equator with range latitude from 6oN to 11oS and longitude from 94o to 141oE. This location might provide Indonesia a great solar irradiation and predictable climate because it is closer to the sun than any location on the earth. Morrison and Sudjito (1992, p.67) measures the global irradiation in some locations in Indonesia.
Denpasar received highest global irradiation during the year in range of 16 to 21 MJ/m2 day. Also DIRJEN LPE has summarized global irradiation measurement in more locations in term of solar energy map. Radiation defines a parameter of the energy density of the sunlight.
In 1992 a government institution on technology justification and application (BPPT) has initiated to utilise renewable enery resources as primary energy by building hybrid power plant which consists of wind turbine, solar power plant and diesel power plant in Nusa Penida, Bali. This hybrid power plant can produce 200 kWh/day where about 10% from wind turbine, 50-75% from solar and less from diesel power plant. Amiral Aziz, a staff of BPPT, comments in National Newspaper Kompas (2009) that it could save 70% diesel oil consumption. However since 2002, the tower of wind turbine fallen because of corrosion problem even it located in the mountain. Consequently, it couldnot be operated. The corrosion might be occurred because of less maintenance. Nusa Penida is surrounded by ocean as the result the air might has acid characteristics. Hence the selection of material which has corrosive resistance might be important in developing a power plant in Nusa Penida besides a good maintenance programm.
In 2006, 2 units of wind turbine from Netherland with capacity of 80 kW started operating which were operated hybrid with diesel power plant. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia (DESDM, 2007) states that until September 2007, both wind turbines had resulted in fuel saving by 49,429 litre diesel oil or about 321 million rupiah or US$ 33402 with assumption that the price of 1 litre diesel oil is 6500 rupiah and kurs 1 USD = 9600 rupiah. The next renewable power generations were started operating in 2007 and 2008.The composition of power plants into the load balance of Nusa Penida System where the total install capacity exceeds the peak load for security power supply reason.
However generally Indonesia has low wind speed and most of wind turbine are produced in Europe concept which generally for high wind speed. In order to improve the efficiency, current researches in Institute Technology Bandung develops new type of wind turbine to catch energy of low wind speed. Hopefully this technology effects wind turbine more efficient.
The integration of renewable power plant into a grid system requires accurate consideration especially into an isolated system because it will affect to the power quality and the availaibility of system. In order to guarantee the security of power supply, these power plants were placed as reserved power. In case of the wind stop blowing suddenly, Dell and Rand (2004,p.163) stated that an energy storage such as battery can be used to support automatically diesel engine as backup of wind turbine because they can response unpredicted change of demand immediately (spinning reserve). Because of that, the excess power renewable power plant is prioritized to fill the battery. The kind of energy storage is determined by the scale of the system (Dell and Rand, 2004).
In spite of the positive contribution of wind turbine and solar power plant, they cause some environtment impacts. Tiwari and Ghosal (2005,p.518-519) identifies that wind turbine results in noise, human safety hazards and image disruption. Also it requires land for installation. While photovoltaic system requires land and large materials. Some type of solar cell are dangerous for health because contain arsenic and cadmium. However for wind turbine, they might be solved by improved power transmission, isolated space, and sosialization. Selection of solar cell could be solution of health such as silicon.
In addition to diversification of renewable energy, government tries to invite investors by providing subsidization. Currently the electricity price of renewable power plant is higher than other types of power plant such as coal because high capital cost and lower output capacity. Consequently, the pay-back time of renewable power generation would be longer than fossil power plant. Because of that investors do not want to invest their money in renewable power generation.
Renewable Energy Indonesia Conclusion
In conclusion, renewable energy contributes to fulfill energy demand. The development of renewable power generation might be the solution to provide electricity for people in islands therefore hopefully it would increase the economy. The benefit of fuel saving in the existing isolated system could be an income for the government. Currently, renewable power generation cannot compete with a coal power plant. In the future, hopefully by the development of technology and mass local production, renewable power generation would be cheaper and then be able to compete with coal or other type power generation. The new technology of manufacturing solar cell allows the reduction of the cost such as thin film. The government could facilitate the development of renewable power generation by subsidizing and fund policy such as loan with low interest rate to investors.
- List of References
- Dell R. M. and Rand D. A. J. (2004) Clean Energy University of York, UK
- DIRJEN LPE (2009) Peta Potensi Energi Retrieved 02 November 2009 from : http://re.djlpe.esdm.go.id/index.php
- Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia – DESDM (2007) Puncak Mundi, Desa Wisata Energi di Puncak Nusa Penida Retrieved01 November 2009 from : http://www.esdm.go.id/berita/listrik/39-listrik/125-puncak-mundi-desa-wisata-energi-di-puncak-nusa-penida.html
- Morrison G. L. and Sudjito (1992) Solar Radiation Data For Indonesia Solar Energy 49/1:65-76
- PT. PLN (Persero) (2009) Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik – RUPTLPT.PLN (Persero) 2009-2018 . Jakarta:Indonesia
- Tiwari G. N. And Ghosal M. K. (2005) Renewable Energy resources Basic Principles and Applications Alpha Science, UK
- Twidell J. And Weir T. (1986) Renewable Energy Resources Great Britain : St Edmundsbury Press
- Varun et al. (2009) Energy, Economic and Environtmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Systems Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13 (2009)
- Yuni Ikawati (2009) Terang dari Pulau Kecil, Kompas Newspaper, 6th December 2008